Place-based tools for Bicultural Planning in Aotearoa

Ruiha Caldwell, Cherie Tirikatene, Jude Pani, Rawiri Waru, Dean Walker and Rita Dionisio - IIRC20
Friday, November 20, 2020

This paper presents two place-based tools, developed to support Māori communities in leading planning processes. This aims to strengthen the integration of mātauranga Māori in town planning in Aotearoa New Zealand, advancing bicultural planning. These tools were co-created with tangata whenua: Ngāi Tūāhuriri in the Waimakariri, and Ngāti Whakaue in Rotorua. Our methodology combines Kaupapa Māori Research and Action Research, and collaborative methods to identify diverse place-based priorities and culturally embedded approaches. Steered by the Treaty of Waitangi, and based on trust and reciprocity, our partnership with Ngāi Tūāhuriri and Ngāti Whakaue enabled meaningful co-creation processes, reflecting existing organisational structures and planning priorities in each case study.

In partnership with Ngāi Tūāhuriri, we deliver the ‘Common Ground/ He Pito Mata’ tool. This place-based tool is web-based, fit-for-purpose, and aims to reconnect Ngāi Tūāhuriri within whānau and whenua. This includes land in Tūāhiwi village (Māori Reserve 873) and across the Waimakariri district in other Māori Reserves. Aiming to support the Rūnanga in pursuing means to revitalise diverse land uses around kāinga nohoanga and other historical sites of relevance to Ngāi Tūāhuriri; the tool is part of the Common Ground’s toolkit to drive land revitalisation processes. End-users include the He Pito Mata, Ngāi Tūāhuriri members, and key stakeholders who provide services to enable land use revitalisation (e.g. native planting experts). Supporting mana whenua in socio-economic revitalisation processes is crucial to ensure bicultural approaches to regional and urban development. This will be of interest to tangata whenua across Aotearoa New Zealand, specifically connected to villages, which have gone into decline because of urban migration and coloniality processes.

In partnership with Te Tatau o Te Arawa and Ngāti Whakaue, we deliver the ‘Te Kete o Kōrero ki te Ōhinemutu’ tool, to assist culturally led urban regeneration in Ōhinemutu, Rotorua. This place-based tool is web-based and fit-for-purpose, to engage the Ōhinemutu community in urban regeneration processes, gathering local knowledge on ngāwhā (geothermal landscapes) and other socio-ecological systems. Enhancing awareness on the wealth of mātauranga Ngāti Whakaue across the whānau, hapū, and iwi, the tool supports urban regeneration linking the whānau to multiple end-users (i.e. local planning authorities, public). The governance structure of the tool takes a layered approach to privacy-publicness, allowing spatial narratives to be presented with diverse and protected levels of detail. Connecting tangata whenua, planning authorities and the wider community through place-based Mātauranga is crucial to advance bicultural approaches in urban regeneration. This is relevant to other Māori communities across Aotearoa New Zealand, for culturally embedded urban regeneration processes of villages and neighbourhoods, particularly those engulfed by urbanisation.

With the support of this research, both sets of partners initiated new governance structures trusts for the implementation of the place-based tools in the community. This enhances integration of Mātauranga Māori in planning, and supports the community in critical planning priorities (urban regeneration and revitalisation). This paper aims to present both place-based tools and their implementation pathways, with relevance across Aotearoa New Zealand.